Periprosthetic joint infections: a clinical practice algorithm

Volpe, Luigi and Indelli, Pier Francesco and Latella, Leonardo and Poli, Paolo and Yakupoglu, Jale and Marcucci, Massimiliano (2014) Periprosthetic joint infections: a clinical practice algorithm. Joints, 2 (4). pp. 169-174. ISSN 2282-4324

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Purpose: periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) accounts for 25% of failed total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) and 15% of failed total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The purpose of the present study was to design a multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm to detect a PJI as cause of a painful TKA or THA. Methods: from April 2010 to October 2012, 111 patients with suspected PJI were evaluated. The study group comprised 75 females and 36 males with an average age of 71 years (range, 48 to 94 years). Eightyfour patients had a painful THA, while 27 reported a painful TKA. The stepwise diagnostic algorithm, applied in all the patients, included: measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels; imaging studies, including standard radiological examination, standard technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan (if positive, confirmation by LeukoScan was obtained); and joint aspiration with analysis of synovial fluid. Results: following application of the stepwise diagnostic algorithm, 24 out of our 111 screened patients were classified as having a suspected PJI (21.7%). CRP and ESR levels were negative in 84 and positive in 17 cases; 93.7% of the patients had a positive technetium-labeled bone scan, and 23% a positive Leuko - Scan. Preoperative synovial fluid analysis was positive in 13.5%; analysis of synovial fluid obtained by preoperative aspiration showed a leucocyte count of > 3000 cells μ/l in 52% of the patients. Conclusions: the present study showed that the diagnosis of PJI requires the application of a multimodal diagnostic protocol in order to avoid complications related to surgical revision of a misdiagnosed “silent” PJI. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic case series.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Algorithm, arthroplasty, diagnosis, infection, joint, TKA, THA
Subjects: 600 Tecnologia - Scienze applicate > 610 Medicina e salute (Classificare qui la tecnologia dei servizi medici) > 617 Rami vari della medicina; Chirurgia > 617.5 Medicina regionale; Chirurgia regionale
Depositing User: Chiara D'Arpa
Date Deposited: 14 Apr 2015 10:03
Last Modified: 14 Apr 2015 10:03

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