Benchmarking of graphene-based materials: real commercial products versus ideal graphene

Kovtun, Alessandro and Treossi, Emanuele and Mirotta, Nicola and Scidà, Alessandra and Liscio, Andrea and Christian, Meganne and Valorosi, Filippo and Boschi, Alex and Young, Robert J. and Galiotis, Costas and Kinloch, Ian A. and Morandi, Vittorio and Palermo, Vincenzo (2019) Benchmarking of graphene-based materials: real commercial products versus ideal graphene. 2D Materials (6). pp. 1-13. ISSN 2053-1583

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There are tens of industrial producers claiming to sell graphene and related materials (GRM), mostly as solid powders. Recently the quality of commercial GRM has been questioned, and procedures for GRM quality control were suggested using Raman Spectroscopy or Atomic Force Microscopy. Such techniques require dissolving the sample in solvents, possibly introducing artefacts.A more pragmatic approach is needed, based on fast measurements and not requiring any assumption on GRM solubility. To this aim, we report here an overview of the properties of commercial GRM produced by selected companies in Europe, USA and Asia. We benchmark: (A) size, (B) exfoliation grade and (C) oxidation grade of each GRM versus the ones of ‘ideal’ graphene and, most importantly, versus what reported by the producer. In contrast to previous works, we report explicitly the names of the GRM producers and we do not re-dissolve the GRM in solvents, but only use techniques compatible with industrial powder metrology.A general common trend is observed: products having low defectivity (%sp2 bonds >95%) feature low surface area (<200 m2 g−1), while highly exfoliated GRM show a lower sp2 content, demonstrating that it is still challenging to exfoliate GRM at industrial level without adding defects.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: graphene, metrology, industrial materials, materials characterization, x-rays photoelectron spectroscopy
Subjects: 500 Scienze naturali e Matematica > 540 Chimica e scienze connesse
Depositing User: Vincenzo Palermo
Date Deposited: 22 Mar 2019 12:12
Last Modified: 22 Mar 2019 12:12

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