Phenazopyridine-Induced MethaemoglobinaemiaThe Aftermath of Dysuria Treatment

Hamza, Amina and Nasrullah, Adeel and Singh, Romil and DiSilvio, Briana (2022) Phenazopyridine-Induced MethaemoglobinaemiaThe Aftermath of Dysuria Treatment. European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine, 9 (2). pp. 1-3. ISSN 2284-2594

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Introduction: Phenazopyridine is an over-the-counter urinary analgesic commonly used to alleviate the burning and urgency associated with lower urinary tract infections. Methaemoglobinaemia is an uncommon adverse effect of phenazopyridine use. We report a case of methaemoglobinaemia in a patient prescribed daily phenazopyridine to treat urethral and bladder irritation caused by a chronic indwelling Foley catheter.Case description: A 55-year-old female resident of a long-term acute care facility with a chronic Foley, tracheostomy and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure was observed to have generalized dusky skin and hypoxia. Pulse oximetry was reading in the high 80s despite administration of 100% FiO2. ABG revealed paO2 of 451, oxyhaemoglobin level 75% and methaemoglobin level 22%. Medication review indicated that the patient was prescribed phenazopyridine 400 mg TID for the previous 2 months. This medication was discontinued. Considering she was chronically taking mirtazapine, she can increase risk of serotonin syndrome should she be administered first-line treatment with methylene blue. Vitamin C was thus instead administered as a second-line agent. Serial ABGs showed a rapid decline in methaemoglobin levels and an increase in oxyhaemoglobin within 2 days.Discussion: Acquired methaemoglobinaemia is a rare adverse effect of treatment with phenazopyridine. This risk increases when drug dosage and duration exceed manufacturer specifications. Treatment typically includes cessation of the offending drug and administration of methylene blue in severe cases. A thorough medication reconciliation should be performed prior to methylene blue initiation, as patients taking serotonergic medications (for example, MAOIs, SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs) are at increased risk of serotonin toxicity with co-administration of methylene blue. In these instances, ascorbic acid/vitamin C can be chosen as an alternative treatment agent.Conclusion: Work-up of refractory hypoxia should involve a thorough review of medications as even some over-the-counter drugs can cause the fatal side effect of methaemoglobinaemia. Treatment with vitamin C should be considered over methylene blue if serotonergic medications have been recently prescribed in order to avoid risk of serotonin syndrome.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Methaemoglobinaemia, phenazopyridine, urinary tract infection, serotonin syndrome, arterial blood gas, methylene blue, case report
Subjects: 600 Tecnologia - Scienze applicate > 610 Medicina e salute (Classificare qui la tecnologia dei servizi medici)
Depositing User: Marina Spanti
Date Deposited: 14 Apr 2022 12:28
Last Modified: 14 Apr 2022 12:28

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