Vaginal infections: epidemiology and risk factors

Tempera, Gianna (2005) Vaginal infections: epidemiology and risk factors. Giornale italiano di ostetricia e ginecologia, 27 (7/8). pp. 280-283. ISSN 1971-1433

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Vaginitis is the most common gynaecologic condition encountered by physicians in the office. The actual frequency of vaginitis is difficult to ascertain, due to numerous confounding factors, such as a high asymptomatic rate, inaccurate self-diagnosis and treatment. Vaginitis affects all races and age groups. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, and T. vaginalis infection are thought to cause approximately 90% of all vaginal infections. Recently, the term “aerobic vaginitis” has been proposed to define a “new” vaginal pathology characterised by pH values above 5, yellowish and foul smelling secretions (though negative at the KOH test), inflammatory and dyspareunia manifestations, the lack of increase in anaerobic microrganisms and the presence of aerobic bacteria from the rectal reservoir. A complex and intricate balance of microorganisms maintains the normal vaginal flora. Important organisms include lactobacilli, corynebacteria, and yeast. Hormones further influence this microenvironment: the decrease in estrogens can result in an altered risk of infection. The normal postmenarchal and premenopausal vaginal pH is 3.8-4.2. At this pH, growth of pathogenic organisms usually is inhibited. Disturbance of the normal vaginal pH can alter the vaginal flora, leading to overgrowth of pathogens. Factors that alter vaginal environment include feminine hygiene products, contraceptives, vaginal medications, antibiotics, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sexual intercourse, and stress.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: 600 Tecnologia - Scienze applicate > 610 Medicina e salute (Classificare qui la tecnologia dei servizi medici) > 618 Altri rami della medicina; Ginecologia e ostetricia, Pediatria, Geriatria
Depositing User: Matteo Viola
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2013 10:32
Last Modified: 15 May 2013 12:58

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